By Brad Fenwick, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
In the winner-take-all system, everyone pays to compete but only one person walks away with the prize. In the competition for grants and contracts, the investment in infrastructure is enormous if you want to remain competitive. As the cost of winning goes up, the resources become scarcer, the prizes become more precious, and the bidding rises. It is increasingly clear that the focus must be on the development of systems that enhance institutional productivity and effectiveness.
By John T. Green, Fellow of Queens’ College, University of Cambridge
John Green's interest in research metrics grew in concert with the UK’s downturn in higher education funding, when it became increasingly apparent that the academic research enterprise required the application of business principles in order to survive and thrive. He later became involved in developing Snowball Metrics, an agreed set of robust and consistent definitions for tried-and tested metrics across the entire spectrum of research activities.
By Michiharu Nakamura, Japan Science and Technology Agency
Over its history, the Japan Science and Technology Agency has nurtured its own distinct competencies, alongside a robust network of universities and private enterprises. By analyzing the S&T landscape around the world, JST can make proposals throughout Japan on high-impact research areas and subjects that should be addressed.
By Chris Llewellyn Smith, University of Oxford
The global scientific landscape has changed dramatically in the last two decades. Since the beginning of the century, global spending on research and development has nearly doubled, and the number of scientific publications has grown by almost a third. This article, based on the Royal Society's "Knowledge, networks and nations: Global scientific collaboration in the 21st century," describes changes in the global scientific scene and analyses their implications.
By David Kross, Elsevier
Research is big business. But identifying return on investment is not easy for research funders. While publishers almost always include an acknowledgements section in their journals, where authors credit their funding sources, the lack of standardization of funding organizations’ names and their abbreviations make it difficult to use the information for reporting or analysis. Several funding bodies and publishers are now collaborating with CrossRef to address this problem.
By Alexander Soldatov, Southern Federal University
Synergy between the traditional Russian route for development of a research laboratory in the form of a scientific school and extensive international mobility for researchers led to the remarkable growth and development of Southern Federal University's International Research Center for Smart Materials.
Eye on Mexico: Public support for science is high, but transition to a research-based economy remains the challenge
By Edmundo A. Gutiérrez-D., National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics, Mexico
Most Mexican companies are oriented towards low-tech production and commercialization of imported goods, while the government is steering the research community, through the evaluation process, towards an international qualification level, which is not correlated with the country’s current industrial needs. This disconnect is hindering the transition toward a more technology-oriented base economy. There is an urgent need to build confidence in the joint university-industry relationship and to reorient high-skilled human resources to meet Mexico’s industrial and technology needs.
Tackling grand challenges: Boosting interdisciplinarity to embrace complexity, unknowns and imperfection
By Gabriele Bammer, The Australian National University
For a team-based interdisciplinary effort to successfully address complex, real-world grand challenges, we need to boost our problem-solving skill sets. In addition to reductionist thinking, which gives us detailed understanding of specific elements of the problem, we need to enhance our ability to also understand the problem as a system. This involves understanding interconnections, possible vicious or stabilizing cycles, simple rules that may underpin complex behaviors, properties that emerge when the focus moves from one level in a hierarchy to another, and so on.
By Miyoung Chun, The Kavli Foundation
The Kavli Foundation has carved out strategic positions as a catalyzer in well-established centers of science and as a leader in identifying and developing new niche areas of science in a timely way. Kavli Institutes are structured to enable a level of independent inquiry lacking in funding from other sources.
By Scott Rutherford, Queen's University Belfast
It is no surprise that the need for research information comes from both internal and external drivers. Perhaps the most important external driver for information within the UK context is the Research Excellence Framework (REF), an initiative of the four UK higher education funding bodies to assess the performance of UK researchers.
By Norhayati Zakaria, Universiti Utara Malaysia
With the globalization of research teams, institutions are increasingly paying attention to the interconnections between management competencies and culture. Whether the team is together in one physical location or operates in a virtual environment, challenges can arise from many sources: cultural, managerial, operational, efficiency or effectiveness concerns, and more.
By Dr. Jerson L. Silva, FAPERJ and Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
The State of Rio de Janeiro funding agency FAPERJ has achieved its most significant growth over the last 15 years and consolidated efforts as an important funder of science, technology and innovation. As a result, the State’s scientific output has improved in quantity and quality over recent years.
Interview with Marye Anne Fox, UC San Diego
Chancellor Fox discusses the University of California, San Diego's global reputation/regional impact, funding successes and challenges, and the Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine. "It’s a challenge to manage public opinion when a large part of the public may not understand the difference between an operating budget and a capital budget."
Interview with Mary Ellen Perry, NIH, and George Weinstock, WUSTL
Hundreds of researchers and multiple academic institutions and NIH institutes participated in the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) to sequence and analyze microbial genomes, create resource repositories, and examine the associated ethical, legal and social implications. The NIH Common Fund supported the HMP as its goals spanned the missions of several NIH Institutes and Centers.
By Doochul Kim, Institute for Basic Science
The Institute for Basic Science has established an internal review system that allows fair and rigorous research assessments. Its research centers are evaluated on research excellence, economic and social impact, training of talented researchers, research collaborations, and environment and infrastructure.
In the wake of 3-11, Japanese academics must further increase understanding of and interest in science and technology in Japan
By Yoichiro Matsumoto, The University of Tokyo
Before the triple disaster — earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident — of March 11, 2011 (3-11), struck Japan, our faculty members within science and technology (S&T) were already under pressure. Historically, professors have been accorded much respect in Japan, and the academic freedom offered at universities presented a desirable career option. However, changing attitudes and conditions have tempered benefits and diminished the pool of next-generation aspirants.
By Bertil Andersson and Tony Mayer, Nanyang Technological University
By changing mind-sets and creating new interactions, we can open universities to new ways of working and generate excitement about interdisciplinary possibilities. Young institutions such as Nanyang Technological University may have advantages in this realm; their structures are not as constrained as those of older institutions. By promoting interdisciplinarity within a Humboldtian ethos, combining research and education, young institutions can be at the forefront of change.
By Sergio Benedetto and Marco Malgarini, ANVUR
The goal of Italy’s Research Evaluation Exercise is to evaluate the quality of the research conducted in Italian universities, and to rank these institutions and their departments in 16 research areas. The evaluation of 400 expert assessors will significantly inform the distribution of public funds.
By Andrew Plume, Elsevier
Historically, studies have shown and continue to demonstrate that researchers desire to disseminate information and further knowledge within their disciplines. But they are also fundamentally human and susceptible to the drivers that motivate us all, including advancement and competition.
Challenge accepted – Japan’s AIMR champions mathematical integration to afford infinite possibilities
By Motoko Kotani, Tohoku University
In the 21st century, materials science seems to be at a turning point, changing into a more exact science based on fundamental principles and prediction. AIMR is playing a leading role by gathering top international researchers from various backgrounds and developing interdisciplinary research in a supportive environment.
By Marcus Nicol, Leanne Harvey and Aidan Byrne, Australian Research Council
Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) expert assessment is informed by indicators of research quality, application and recognition. The metrics used to inform assessments depend on the discipline and include such variables as external funding, publications, competitive awards and patents.
Ambitious and agile: The University of Bremen’s institutional strategy for advancing research strengths at a mid-sized university
By Rolf Drechsler and Achim Wiesner, University of Bremen
The University of Bremen produces internationally competitive research, ranking especially high in volume of third-party funding for that research. Bremen has been notably boosted in its development by its capacity for internal cooperation and communication.
By Adam Tickell, University of Birmingham
During the past 15 years or so, the University of Birmingham progressively slipped according to the UK’s research evaluation measures. Under the leadership of a new Vice Chancellor, Professor David Eastwood, the university went through an ambitious transformation to achieve its goal of becoming a leading global university.
By Benjamin Wan-Sang Wah and Michael Ming-Yuen Chang, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
The authors explore approaches considered to understand their CUHK’s impact on society, including reputation surveys, altmetrics and bibliometrics. They suggest that deep analysis of citations may be more meaningful than the current dependence on number of citations as a proxy for a paper’s quality.
By Holly J. Falk-Krzesinski, Elsevier
The author explores recent findings about team assembly and composition, as well as trust and communication, and offers related tools leaders can use to implement effective practices in team science.